• Coconut – a palm
  • Scientific Name – Cocos nucifera L.
  • Habitat – Humid tropical coastal areas and islands
  • Uses –
      1. Nuts- copra and fibers are obtained. Coconut is cultivated mainly for theses uses.
      Coconut oil is extracted from copra. This oil mainly used for culinary purpose. Uncooked fresh oil is used in preventing dental decay.
      Extraction of coconut oil gives oil cake as a by-product. In home-made extraction this oil cake is prepared as a sweet which has sweet smell the smell of coconut oil.
      Manufacture of coir from its fibers creates thousands of people.

      2. Green coconut – Water from tender fruit is travelers’ most preferred delicious drink and

      3. Toddy – plant exudate by a cut on the unopened spathe.
      From sweet toddy – jaggery, sugar.
      From fermented toddy – alcoholic drink, vinegar.

  • Soil for growing –
      Almost all types of well drained soils in tropical areas – coastal sand, alluvial, reclaimed marshy low land, red loam, laterite.
      Too high water table for a long period is harmful for cultivation of coconut.
  • Planting material
      – Mature, full size nut from a healthy mother plant with preferred qualities of nut, copra, etc. Healthy seedlings are selected such as nine month seedlings having a minimum of four leaves.
  • Land preparation
      – checking of drain systems, clearing and leveling.
  • Pits for transplanting–
      Pit sizes –
      Sandy-loam soil with low water table – 1m X 1m X 1m
      Laterite soil with a rocky substratum – 1.2m X 1.2 X 1.2m
      Before planting those pits are filled with loose soil up to 60cm depth.

      Littoral sandy soil – 1.5m X 1.5m X 1.5m of circular pits, partly filled with alternate layers
      of red earth and coconut husks.
      Pit spacing –
      Square system – 7.5m to 9m, making a provision for 177 to 124 palms per hectare.
      Triangular system – 20 to 25 more palms than the above.
      Hedge system – 5 to 5.5m along south to north row and 9 to 10m between the rows. This allows more number of plants to be accommodated per hectare of land providing enough sun light on each.
      Alternatively, seedlings are transplanted on soil mounds when water table is high or in low lands following suitable spacing as above.

  • Transplanting and care
      – at the onset of rainy season.
      Newly transplanted seedlings to be shaded and irrigated properly during dry season.
      Apply large quantities of green leaf manure or farm yard manure for coarse textured soil with poor organic matter.
      Apply enough dose of NPK fertilizers in every pits as per soil sample analysis for obtaining speedy growth and early production of nuts.
      First dose of fertilizer is to be applied three month after planting.
      Always check for any attack from insects and infection of fungal diseases.
      Periodically clear the pits from any weeds.
      Allow rains to wash down the soil of the collar region of the seedlings.
  • Bearing of nuts and care
      Starts generally at five to seven years of age of the plants and continues economically onwards for 50 to 60 years.
      Follow regular inter-cultivation, manuring and caring of land for maintaining productivity.
  • Always consult your local agro-professional for a better return from your land under coconut grove.
  • Photos Of Coconut Tree and Coconut Fruit